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Guide to Citations

A guide for everyone explaining basics of different types of Citation: What their purposes are, how to do them, and why they are important.

When should I use Chicago/Turabian style citation?

Chicago/Turabian citations are generally used for business, fine arts, and history.¹ They are used for academic papers in this field as well as any published papers or articles that reference any non-original material.

¹University of Pittsburgh Library System, "Citation Styles: APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, IEEE: Home," Last Updated November

           11, 2019,

What do citations look like?

Chicago/Turabian citations have two elements: The footnote and the bibliography.

  • Footnotes are represented by numbers in the text which then correspond to the number at the bottom of the page¹. They are often shorter and change² if you re-use the citation.
  • The bibliography is the more complete citation at the end of the paper.

The main difference between the two is the punctuation, the location of the citation and whether or not it changes throughout the paper. Citations look different depending on whether you are citing a book, a newspaper, a website, a recording, or other medium.


¹Musicians Institute, "This is a footnote," accessed November 20, 2019. https://mi.libapps.....

²Musicians Institute, "This is a shortened footnote."


Musicians Institute. "This Is A Bibliographic Entry." Accessed November 20, 2019. https://mi.libapps.....

How to make a footnote

In Mircosoft Word

  • In the menu, go to References --> Insert Footnote
  • You can also insert a footnote by using the keyboard command Ctrl+Alt+F

In GoogleDocs

  • In the menu, go to Insert --> Footnote
  • You can also insert a footnote by using the keyboard command Ctrl+Alt+F

Formatting Hints and Tips

Chicago style papers generally require:

  • Times New Roman, 12 point font
  • Double spaced lines
  • 1" margins on all sides
  • Footnotes and a Bibliography (with hanging indentations for the latter)
    • Hanging indentations are where all lines are indented once (by a 1/2-inch) EXCEPT for the first line.


  • Footnotes
    • Firstname Lastname,....
    • Corporate Name
  • Bibliographic Citations
    • Lastname, Firstname
    • Corporate Name
  • If there are no authors but editors, put their names where the authors names should go and follow with ", eds."
  • If there are translators, put their name after the title and after ", trans." for the footnote and "Translated by" in the bibliographic entry.


  • Footnotes and Bibliographic Citations
    • Book titles should be in italics
    • Everything else should be between quotation marks.
    • Title should be capitalized exactly as shown on the work.


  • Footnotes
    • All elements are separated by a comma and one space.
    • End the footnote citation with a period.
    • Commas go on the inside of quotation marks.
  • Bibliographic Citations
    • All elements are separated by a period and one space.
    • End the citation with a period.
    • Periods go on the inside of the quotation marks.

What is Ibid.?

Ibid. is an abbreviation of the Latin word "ibidem," which means "in the same place."¹ Researchers use this when they reference the same source several times in a row. Rather than repeating the citation, which can look overly complicated, they use this and then what ever page or timecode etc. that specifically refers to that work.

It might look like this:


²J.K. Rowling, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, (New York: Arthur A. Levine, 2007), 65.

³Ibid., 92.

In this case, I am referencing Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows twice, but with different pages. Since there aren't any citations between them, I can use it. But if I reference something else before the second citation, I have to put a truncated version of the citation.

It might look like this:


²J.K. Rowling, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, (New York: Arthur A. Levine, 2007), 65.

³J.R.R. Tolkein, The Hobbit, (Crows Nest, Australia: George Allen & Unwin, 1937), 42. 

Rowling, Harry Potter, 92.

Here are my references for the background of Ibid.:

¹West Oregon University. "Chicago Style Guide, for 17th Edition: Ibid." Last updated July 26, 2019.

References and Citations

Chicago Manual of Style. "Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations." Accessed November 20,


University of Pittsburgh Library System. "Citation Styles: APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, IEEE: Home." Accessed November 20,