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Musicians Insitute Library

Guide to Citations

A guide for everyone explaining basics of different types of Citation: What their purposes are, how to do them, and why they are important.

Basic Footnote Format

AuthorFirstName AuthorLastName*, "Title of Video," recorded Month DD, YYYY, YouTube video, published Month DD, YYYY, www.putlinkhere.com, hh:mm:ss.**

*Username can be substituted for name.

** The time here would be what portion of the video you are citing. You only need to cite the start time of the portion.

Basic Bibliographic Citation Format

AuthorLastName, AuthorFirstName.* "Title of Video." Recorded Month DD, YYYY. YouTube video. Published Month

DD, YYYY. www.putlinkhere.com. 

*Username can be substituted for name.

Example of a YouTube Video

¹Musicians Institute, "Guitar School | Guitar Classes | Guitar Program - MI - Musicians Institute," Filmed August 2013, YouTube Video, 00:01:30, Posted August 28, 2013, https://youtu.be/iK9ApeY2iD8.

  • The footnote citation for the first time this video is cited.

²Musicians Institute, "Guitar School...," 00:01:45.

  • The footnote citation for every subsequent citation of this video.

Musicians Institute. "Guitar School | Guitar Classes | Guitar Program - MI - Musicians Institute." Filmed August 2013. YouTube Video. Posted August 28, 2013. https://youtu.be/iK9ApeY2iD8.

  • The bibliographic citation at the end of the paper.

Example of a video from MI's LPW Database

¹Musicians Institute, "Alternative Rock Week 1 Fall 2019 Performance 8," Filmed October 7, 2019, Video, 00:02:15, Posted October 2019, https://avalon.mi.edu/media_objects/4j03cz680.

  • The footnote citation for the first time this video is cited.

²Musicians Institute, "Alternative Rock Week 1 Fall 2019 Performance 8," 00:02:25.

  • The footnote citation for every subsequent citation of this video.

Musicians Institute. "Alternative Rock Week 1 Fall 2019 Performance 8." Filmed October 7, 2019. Video. Posted October 2019. https://avalon.mi.edu/media_objects/4j03cz680.

  • The bibliographic citation at the end of the paper.

Basic Footnote Format

MainArtistFirstName MainArtistLastName, "Title of Track," with OtherArtistName (role in band), OtherArtistName (role in band), and OtherArtistName (role in band), Album Title, recorded Month DD, YYYY in RecordingLocation, PublisherName IDNumber, YearPublished, streaming audio, www.linkgoeshere.com, TimeBeingCited.

Basic Bibliographic Citation

MainArtistLastName, MainArtistFirstName. "Title of Track." With OtherArtistName (role in band), OtherArtistName (role in band), 

and OtherArtistName (role in band). Album Title. 

Recorded Month DD, YYYY in RecordingLocation. 

PublisherName IDNumber, YearPublished. Streaming audio. www.linkgoeshere.com.

Example Citation for a Song from a Database

¹Alejandro Willis, "En la luz de tu mirada," with Alejandro Willis, baritone and guitar, Alberto Escobar, tenor and tiple, recorded November 9, 1913 in Bogotá, Colombia, Victor Talking Machine Company 65893, 1913, streaming audio, 00:05, http://www.loc.gov/jukebox/recordings/detail/id/10294.

  • The footnote citation for the first time this video is cited.

²Willis, "En la luz de tu mirada," 00:00:10.

  • The footnote citation for every subsequent citation of this video.

Willis, Alejandro. "En la luz de tu mirada." With Alejandro Willis, baritone and guitar, Alberto Escobar, tenor and tiple. Recorded November 9, 1913 in Bogotá, Colombia. Victor Talking Machine Company 65893, 1913. Streaming audio. http://www.loc.gov/jukebox/recordings/detail/id/10294.

  • The bibliographic citation at the end of the paper.

Example Citation for a Podcast on Spotify

¹Jason Weiser and Carrisa Weiser, "Episode 131B-Greek Mythology: All in the Family," Myths and Legends, podcast streaming audio, 00:30:00, January 1, 2019, Spotify.

  • The footnote citation for the first time this video is cited.

²Weiser and Weiser, "Episode 131B-Greek Mythology: All in the Family," 00:35:00.

  • The footnote citation for every subsequent citation of this video.

Weiser, Jason and Carrisa Weiser. "Episode 131B-Greek Mythology: All in the Family." Myths and Legends. Podcast streaming audio, 00:30:00. January 1, 2019. Spotify.

  • The bibliographic citation at the end of the paper.

Basic Footnote Citation

ArtistFirstName ArtistLastName, Title of CD, recorded Year*, LocationOfProductionStudio: ProductionStudioName, YearOfPublication, compact disc.

OR

ArtistFirstName ArtistLastName, "Title of Track," with/by OtherArtistFirstName OtherArtistLastName, recorded Year*, Track ## on Title of CD, LocationOfProductionStudio: ProductionStudioName, YearOfPublication, Compact Disc.

*Recording date is only necessary if the recording was made differently from the CD as a whole. Similarly, the other artists are only necessary if the artists are different from the entire Album or if the music was written by someone other than the artist.

Basic Bibliographic Citation

ArtistLastName, ArtistFirstName. Title of CD. Recorded Year.* LocationOfProductionStudio: ProductionStudioName, YearOfPublication. 

Compact Disc.

OR

ArtistLastName, ArtistFirstName. "Title of Track." With/by OtherArtistFirstName OtherArtistLastName. Recorded Year.* Track ## on 

Title of CD. LocationOfProductionStudio: ProductionStudioName, YearOfPublication. Compact Disc.

*See above notes

Example Citation for a Video on DVD

¹Sound Advice/Analog-Style Synthesis And Digital Effects Explained and Explored, disc 2, directed by David Polich, (Santa Cruz, CA: Keyfax Newmedia, 2007), 00:15:00.

  • The footnote citation for the first time this video is cited.

²Sound Advice, disc 2, 00:30:00.

  • The footnote citation for every subsequent citation of this video.

Sound Advice/Analog-Style Synthesis And Digital Effects Explained and Explored. Disc 2. Directed by David Polich. Santa Cruz, CA: Keyfax Newmedia, 2007.

  • The bibliographic citation at the end of the paper.

Example Citation for a Song on a CD

¹Herbie Hancock, The Essential Herbie Hancock, (New York: Columbia, 2006), Compact Disc.

  • The footnote citation for the first time this CD is cited.

¹Herbie Hancock, "'Round Midnight" by Miles Davis and John Coltrane, recorded 1962, Track 2 on The Essential Herbie Hancock, (New York: Columbia, 2006), Compact Disc.

  • The footnote citation for the first time this song on a CD is cited.

²Hancock, The Essential Herbie Hancock.

  • The footnote citation for every subsequent citation of this CD.

²Hancock, "'Round Midnight."

  • The footnote citation for every subsequent citation of this CD.

Hancock, Herbie. The Essential Herbie Hancock. New York: Columbia, 2006. Compact Disc.

  • The bibliographic citation for the entire CD at the end of the paper.

Hancock, Herbie. "'Round Midnight." By Miles Davis and John Coltrane. Recorded 1962. Track 2 on The Essential Herbie Hancock. New York: Columbia, 2006. Compact Disc.

  • The bibliographic citation for this specific track at the end of the paper.